Each thinking style is represented by a different hat:

· Blue Hat: organization and planning.

· Green Hat: creative thinking.

· Red Hat: feelings and instincts.

· Yellow Hat: benefits and values.

· Black Hat: risk assessment.

· White Hat: information gathering.

BLUE Hat Thinking: Process

Thinking about thinking. What thinking is needed: Organizing the thinking. Planning for action.

· Organization of Thinking

· Control of Process

· Organization

· Sets the Focus

· Use of All the Hats

· Summarizes

GREEN Hat Thinking: Creativity.

Ideas, alternatives, possibilities. Provocations- “PO”. Solutions to black hat problems.

· Creative

· New Ideas and Concepts

· Search for Options

· and Alternatives

WHITE Hat Thinking : Facts

Information and data. Neutral and objective. What do I know? What do I need to find out? How will I get the information I need?

· Neutral and Objective

· Deals with Facts

RED Hat Thinking: Feelings

Intuition, hunches, gut instinct. My feelings right now. Feelings can change. No season are given.

· Emotions

· Feelings

· Hunches

· Intuition

BLACK Hat Thinking: Cautions

Difficulties, weaknesses, dangers. Logical reasons are given. Spotting the risks.

· Most Used

· Serious

· Cautious

· Careful

· Lays Out Risks

· Basis of Critical Thinking

YELLOW Hat Thinking: Benefits

Positives, plus points. Logical reasons are given. Why an idea is usefu.

· Optimistic

· Hopeful

· Positive Thinking

· Constructive

· Effective

· Opportunities

· Reactive Thinking

1. Based on the work by Edward de Bono

“Thinking–The Ultimate Human Resource”

We can always improve our thinking skills.

Confused thinking arises

from trying to do too

much at once.

We should emphasize: what can be, not what is.

2. Two Main Purposes For Six Thinking Hats

Simplifies thinking by having to deal with one thing at a time.

Allows a switch in thinking without threatening ego.

3. What Does Six Hat Thinking Do?

“Simple & Effective…Six Thinking Hats is a simple, effective parallel thinking process that helps people be more productive, focused, and mindfully involved.” (Debono Group)

Derives power from focused thinking

Saves time

Removes ego from decisions

Does type of thinking at a time

Debono Group: Using Six Thinking Hats®, you and your team will learn how to use a disciplined process which will…

Maximize productive collaboration and minimize counterproductive interaction/behavior

Consider issues, problems, decisions, and opportunities systematically

Use Parallel Thinking as a group or team to generate more, better ideas and solutions

Make meetings much shorter and more productive

Reduce conflict among team members or meeting participants

Debono Group:

4. The 360⁰ and other types of performance evaluations 360⁰和其他类型的绩效评估

Individual and Business Performance Evaluations

Methods Used to Evaluate Employees

Some methods employers use to evaluate employees:

360° Feedback Evaluation Method

Productivity Measures

· Customers Seen

· Number of Sales

· Accomplishing more

Effectiveness Measures

· Number of resolved customer service claims

· Customer satisfaction

What is 360 degree feedback?

· 360 degree feedback, also known as multi-rater feedback, is a system in which anonymous feedback is gathered about a member of staff from various people they have working relationships with.

· This is usually their managers, peers, direct reports, subordinates – hence the name "360 degree". It's designed so a range of people can share their opinion to provide a well-rounded view on the individual.

· It's used mostly as a development tool because it provides information about a subject's work competencies, behaviour and working relationships. It's also mainly used for individuals higher up in the organisation's hierarchy.

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24. 13 financial performance measure to monitor:

The metrics below are found in the financial statements and are among the most important for managers and other key stakeholders within an organization to understand.

1. Gross Profit Margin: a profitability ratio that measures what percentage of revenue is left after subtracting the cost of goods sold

2. Net Profit Margin: a profitability ratio that measures what percentage of revenue and other income is left after subtracting all costs for the business, including costs of goods sold, operating expenses, interest, and taxes

3. Working Capital: a measure of the business’s available operating liquidity, which can be used to fund day-to-day operations.

4. Current Ratio: a liquidity ratio that helps you understand whether the business can pay its short-term obligations—that is, obligations due within one year— with its current assets and liabilities (Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities)

5. Quick Ratio (acid test ratio): a type of liquidity ratio that measures a business’s ability to handle short-term obligations.

6. Leverage (equity multiplier): refers to the use of debt to buy assets

7. Debt-to-Equity Ratio: a solvency ratio that measures how much a company finances itself using equity versus debt

8. Inventory Turnover: an efficiency ratio that measures how many times per accounting period the company sold its entire inventory

9. Total asset turnover: an efficiency ratio that measures how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate revenue.

10. Return on Equity: a profitability ratio measured by dividing net profit over shareholders’ equity

11. Return on assets: a profitability ratio which is measured by dividing net profit by the company’s average assets

12. Operating cash flow: a measure of how much cash the business has as a result of its operations

13. Seasonality: a measure of how the period of the year is affecting your company’s financial numbers and outcomes

29. Methods to evaluate corporations and businesses:

Comparison budget to actual

Variance analysis

Residual Income

Management by objectives

Economic Value Added

Balanced Scorecard (we will discuss more in separate lecture)

30. Other Methods to Evaluate Corporations and Businesses

Internal rate of return (IRR): method of calculating an investment’s rate of return

Return on investment (ROI): tries to directly measure the amount of return on a particular investment, relative to the investment’s cost

Cash-flow return on investment (CFROI): valuation model that assumes the stock market sets prices based on cash flow, not on corporate performance and earnings.

Discounted cash flow (DCF): method of valuing a security, project, company, or asset using the concepts of the time value of money.

Organizational climate is influenced by leadership style. successful leaders have strengths in the following emotional intelligence competencies: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill.

The coercive style: “Do what I say” approach can be effective in a turnaround situation, a natural disaster, or when working with problem employees. But in most situations, coercive leadership inhibits the organization’s flexibility and dampens employees’ motivation. 强制性领导抑制了组织的灵活性,抑制了员工的积极性。

The authoritative style: “Come with me” approach: states the overall goal but gives people the freedom to choose their own means of achieving it. This style works especially well when a business is adrift. It is less effective when the leader is working with a team of experts who are more experienced than he is.阐明总体目标,但给予人们自由选择实现目标的方式。这种风格尤其适用于业务不稳定的情况。当领导者与一群比他更有经验的专家一起工作时,效率就会降低。

The affiliative style. The hallmark of the affiliative leader is a “People come first” attitude. This style is particularly useful for building team harmony or increasing morale. But its exclusive focus on praise can allow poor performance to go uncorrected. Also, affiliative leaders rarely offer advice, which often leaves employees quandary.隶属型领导的标志是“以人为本”的态度。这种风格对于建立团队和谐或提高士气特别有用。但它只注重表扬,会让糟糕的表现得不到纠正。此外,亲缘型领导很少提供建议,这常常让员工感到困惑。

The democratic style. This style’s impact on organizational climate is not as high as you might imagine. By giving workers a voice in decisions, democratic leaders build organizational flexibility and responsibility and help generate fresh ideas. But sometimes, the price is endless meetings and confused employees who feel leaderless.这种风格对组织氛围的影响没有你想象的那么大。通过给予员工在决策中的发言权,民主领导人建立了组织的灵活性和责任感,并帮助产生新的想法。但有时候,代价就是没完没了的会议,让员工感到没有领导。

The pacesetting style. A leader who sets high-performance standards and exemplifies them himself has a very positive impact on employees who are self-motivated and highly competent. But other employees tend to feel overwhelmed by such a leader’s demands for excellence—and to resent his tendency to take over a situation.一个制定高绩效标准并亲自实践的领导者,会对那些自我激励、能力强的员工产生非常积极的影响。但其他员工往往会被这样的领导者对卓越的要求所压倒,并对他接管局面的倾向感到不满。

The coaching style. This style focuses more on personal development than on immediate work-related tasks. It works well when employees are already aware of their weaknesses and want to improve, but not when they resist changing their ways.这种风格更注重个人发展,而不是直接与工作相关的任务。当员工已经意识到自己的弱点并想要改进,但当他们拒绝改变自己的方式时,这种方法就行不通了。


 Emotional self-awareness: the ability to read and understand your emotions and recognize their impact on work performance, relationships, and the like. 阅读和理解自己情绪的能力,并认识到它们对工作表现、人际关系等的影响。

Accurate self-assessment: a realistic evaluation of your strengths and limitations. 对自己的优势和局限性进行现实的评估。

Self-confidence: a strong and positive sense of self-worth.强烈而积极的自我价值感。


Self-control: the ability to keep disruptive emotions and impulses under control. 

Trustworthiness: a consistent display of honesty and integrity. 始终如一的诚实和正直。

Conscientiousness: the ability to manage yourself and your responsibilities.

Adaptability: skill at adjusting to changing situations and overcoming obstacles.

Achievement orientation: the drive to meet an internal standard of excellence.

Initiative: a readiness to seize opportunities.随时准备抓住机会。

Social Awareness

Empathy: sensing other people’s emotions, understanding their perspective, and taking an active interest in their concerns.

Organizational awareness: ability to read the currents of organizational life, build decision networks, and navigate politics. 

Service orientation: the ability to recognize and meet customers’ needs.

Social Skill

Visionary leadership: the ability to take charge and inspire with a compelling vision. ? Influence: the ability to wield a range of persuasive tactics.

 Developing others: the propensity to bolster the abilities of others through feedback and guidance.

Communication: skill at listening and sending clear, convincing, and well-tuned messages

Change catalyst: proficiency in initiating new ideas and leading people in a new direction.

Conflict management: the ability to de-escalate disagreements and orchestrate resolutions. 

Building bonds: proficiency at cultivating and maintaining a web of relationships.

Teamwork and collaboration: competence at promoting cooperation and building teams.

• Type A individuals are outgoing, ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status-conscious, impatient, anxious, proactive, and concerned with time management.

 • Type B individuals are relaxed, patient, and easy-going nature.

Type A Personality at Work • Highly Competitive • Strong Personality • Restless when inactive • Seeks Promotion • Punctual • Thrives on deadlines • Several  jobs at once • Goal-oriented • Risk-taking • Good under stress

Type B Personality at Work • Works methodically • Rarely competitive • Enjoys leisure time • Does not anger easily • Does the job well but doesn’t need recognition • Easy-going • Relationship-oriented • Outgoing • Enthusiastic

Type A strength: Embraces change, Take-charge, Fast-paced, Entrepreneurial, Direct management style, Ambitious, Works well independently, Passionate, Demands maximum freedom, Dominant, Good administrative skills, Highly competitive, Good delegation skills, Multitasking

Type A weakness: Stubborn, Workaholic, Impatient, Abrupt, Tough, Easily angered, Insensitive, Intolerant, Domineering

Type B strengths: Enthusiasm, Fun-loving, Persuasiveness, Easily liked by most people, Friendliness, Charismatic, Idea person, Motivator, Dreamer, Lighthearted, People-oriented, Spontaneous, Faster-paced, Self-confident

Type B weakness: self-involved, try to do too much at once, Impatient, unrealistic, Trouble being alone, Doesn’t finish what was started, Short attention span, Arrogant or cocky, Easily bored, Self-indulgent, Prone to sweeping generalizations, Impulsive.

BLUE Hat Thinking: Process

Organization of Thinking •Control of Process • Organization • Sets the Focus • Use of All the Hats • Summarizes