Literature review

Gaby L. Johnson

Nova Southeastern University

HSDD 6000

Assignment C

Adela Beckerman-Fontana

January 30, 2023

To gain a comprehensive understanding of the program and its significance, this paper is going to evaluate and review scholarly articles including books, journals and thesis related to the developmental disabilities. Development disabilities entail certain conditions that result from an impairment in the physical, learning, language, or behavior aspects of a child in which it affects a child’s day to day functioning. The conditions are identified during the developmental period but mostly last for as long as the person is alive. However, these developmental disabilities can be identified early enough, and the necessary intervention measures taken to prevent a lifetime disability (Gapurova, 2022). This constitutes the primary objective of this program. Hence this program has a lot of significance in providing a chance for appropriate interventions to be taken early enough. The developing nervous system's vulnerability or abnormalities are among the factors that cause developmental disabilities. The period of the human nervous system's development, which starts during pregnancy and lasts into early life, makes it particularly susceptible.

A significant fraction of developmental disorders results from hereditary or incidental genetic abnormalities, or by the interaction of genetic features and ecological factors.[footnoteRef:1] Dietary deficits, and other external shocks or exposure during crucial stages of neurodevelopment are other factors[footnoteRef:2]. The effects of these encounters frequently rely on how quickly the growing brain is affected. Intellectual impairment and particular learning problems in children with average intelligence are examples of mental difficulties in children. Subnormal intelligence combined with deficiencies in adaptive functioning is referred to as developmental disorders. Normal definitions of mental retardation grades use IQ[footnoteRef:3]. Children with moderate cognitive impairment, which is the most prevalent type, perform poorly in school and as a result have fewer career options[footnoteRef:4]. Mildly mentally retarded adults usually lead meaningful lives[footnoteRef:5]. Children with extra severe grades of mental retardation (moderate, severe, and profound) are more likely to have multiple disabilities (for example, foresight, ability to hear, motor, and/or seizure impairment in alongside cognitive impairment) and to be reliant on others for basic needs for their entire lives. [footnoteRef:6] [1: Citation is needed. ] [2: Citation is needed. ] [3: Citation is needed. ] [4: Citation is needed. ] [5: Citation is needed. ] [6: Citation is needed. ]

Among the motor impairments identified in childhood is cerebral palsy, which is brought on by harm to the motor tracts of the developing brain; Congenital and acquired limb deformities, spinal muscular atrophies, and progressive diseases including muscular abnormalities can all result in immobility (Cacioppo et al, 2022). Other ailments that can cause it include polio and spinal cord injuries. A chronic, non – progressive injury or insult to the developing brain causes cerebral palsy. Therefore, depending on the exact position of the impairment, impacted kids may display a range of movement challenges. Spasticity is caused by engagement of the motor cortex, whereas factors can influence either with or without instability is caused by engagement of the brain. The central nervous system is involved, which causes dystonia and dyskinesia (United Nations Children’s Fund, 2022).

Due to concurrent insults to several parts of the brain, people with cerebral palsy frequently have additional problems. Disorder, learning difficulties, epilepsy, language abnormalities, and psychological issues are some examples of these conditions Similar to this, some motor illnesses that worsen over time, including muscular dystrophy, can also be accompanied by cognitive impairments. In contrast, the impairment is typically limited to motor functions or mobility in many types of paralytics, including those brought on by poliomyelitis damage, as well as genetic or developed limb deformities[footnoteRef:7]. [7: Citation is needed. ]

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Speech, hearing, and vision impairments

Low vision, blindness, and hearing loss are all disorders that largely affect adults because their prevalence rises with age. However, several significant factors affecting vision and hearing impairment start early in life and could be classified as neurocognitive. Children with refractive errors, the most prevalent type of visual impairment, have challenges in low-income nations where many people lack access to eyewear and fundamental eye care services. Refractive errors can, however, be easily diagnosed and treated using low-cost procedures, which can be included in basic care screening services. The capacity to hear and repeat sounds is a prerequisite for speaking (Varadaraj et al, 2022). The first two years of life are the best time for speech acquisition; if a child is not able to communicate by the age of five or six, it will be difficult for them to later produce understandable speech. The hearing of a kid who is suspected of having mental retardation or a delay in speech development should therefore be assessed, as well as their hearing in young children. [footnoteRef:9] [9: Citation is needed. ]

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Behavioral Disorders

Resources for mental health services are much more scarce compared to those for physical care in most of the poor countries. As a result, many kids[footnoteRef:11] with behavioral or psychological issues go untreated or without a proper diagnosis. Although there is a paucity of official data, it is likely that behavioral issues are more prevalent in low countries[footnoteRef:12] than in wealthy ones due to the overabundance of poverty, warfare, starvation, and natural disasters in the developing globe. In addition, contemporary societal changes and increasing urbanization in many low-income countries have had unfavorable repercussions, like residential evictions and the disruption of conventional family structures, which have left many children homeless and displaced (Brunsting et al, 2022). Autism and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders are behavioral illnesses that are not always related to psychosocial origins. These illnesses can have a significant negative impact on both families and educational performance. [footnoteRef:13] The goal of current research is to pinpoint the brain's anatomical and functioning correlations for various behavior problems. [footnoteRef:14] [11: Please don’t use the term kids. Please use children or youth. Thank you. ] [12: What is a “low country”? This is confusing. ] [13: Citation is needed. ] [14: Citation is needed. ]

Sstudies reveal that developmental disabilities are common among children and hence, it is an issue that can never be ignored. Additionally, most of the time, a kid with a certain learning disability is not recognized until after they start school, when there is a clear disparity between their skills and their performance in particular areas (Lee & Taylor, 2022). These kids might learn to get over[footnoteRef:15] their obstacles and succeed at levels that are average or even above average with the help of special academic accommodations. However, waiting until the child starts going to school to identify the abnormalizes can be more dangerous as compared to identifying the problem early before the child starts schooling. This would ensure that they receive diagnosis at the right time. [15: Please do not use informal phrases like “get over”. Thank you. ]

Controlling the fundamental issue or disease that leads to developmental impairment is considered basic prevention. [footnoteRef:16] Vaccination against congenital rubella and salt iodization against iodine deficit are two examples. Secondary prevention aims to stop a sickness or injury from turning into a permanent handicap. Examples of such interventions include infant PKU screening, accompanied by nutritional adjustments and trauma emergency treatment. Through early detection of potentially debilitating illnesses and therapies targeted at avoiding or limiting incapacity, there are numerous possibilities for secondary prevention of intellectual impairments in low-income nations. The provision of vision and hearing inspection, eye, and ear care, and refract light and hearing aid services at the basic health care level; enhanced availability of urgent services is a few of these. They involve initial recognition and adjustments of vitamins deficiency as well as other forms of malnourishment; PKU testing preceded by diet adjustment; precise and timely recognition and impactful control of bacterial infectious diseases that can cause hearing loss; appropriate therapy of malaria; and Initiatives like prenatal and neonatal surveillance, iodine enrichment of the food production, and various immunization of mothers to avoid chronic measles have long been beneficial to children in developed nations. [16: Citations are needed throughout this paragraph. ]

Due to their initial beginnings and the frequent lifetime dependency that results, developmental impairments cost significant personal, societal, and financial consequences. As they get older, children with impairments frequently have limited work, productivity, and quality of life possibilities. They also frequently have limited educational chances. However, in situations when pertinent data and services are unavailable, it is challenging to estimate the expenses of developmental disability. Hence, it is better to identify the abnormalities early enough, so that they can be rectified before developing to stages that would endanger the life of the victims. [footnoteRef:17] [17: Citations are needed throughout this paragraph.]

Early intervention programs are designed to prevent or reduce the impact of developmental delays as well as to improve participants' development capability. Children that are naturally or environmentally susceptible are likely to get early intervention, as do those who have known developmental delays. Depending on the strongest evidence currently available, there is growing agreement that early interventions can have a moderating favorable impact. Most of the research' significant methodological flaws, however, severely restrict this literature. Therefore, more rigorous medical tests are required to determine which interventions best fulfill the requirements of kids who have developmental disabilities or who are at concern of becoming them. When contrasting the linguistic growth of kids with academically considerable hearing impairment to kids with a normal ability to hear, bilateral deafness has been linked to major speech abnormalities and abnormalities. From early childhood to maturity, these linguistic developmental distinctions have been discussed at all age groups. For individuals with moderate to extensive hearing damage in third to fourth grade and for those with moderate to deafness in sixth grade, the speech impairments are described by plateaus in proficiency on regular tests. For the early intervention to be established, the program will be crucial in identifying the disabilities at an early stage.[footnoteRef:18] [18: Citations are needed throughout this entire paragraph.]

It is becoming more understood that a kid's first stages of life are a particularly vulnerable time in the developmental process, setting the groundwork for cognitive performance, psychological, social, and self-regulation skills, as well as physiological wellness in childhood and even beyond. However, many kids experience a variety of stresses at this time that can impede their ability to develop normally. Programs for early remediation are intended to lessen the risks that put children in jeopardy for failure. These initiatives aid parents, kids. These resources could include educational processes or other organized encounters with an immediate impact on a kid or have an indirect impact via educating caregivers or otherwise improving the nursing environment.

In a recent survey, investigators generated what was recognized from the valid scientific survey literary works regarding the short- and long-term advantages of initial intervention initiatives, the characteristics of more impactful initiatives, and the financial rewards of investing more money in early childhood. Here is a summary of their results. Studies have demonstrated that early childhood intervention programs increase a variety of outcomes, including academic performance, conduct, educational advancement and attainment, a decrease in crime and misbehavior, and enhanced job market effectiveness. Better-trained caretakers and therapies with lower child-to-staff ratios seem to produce good outcomes. The initial stage in effectively implementing any preventive measures is a precise and timely acknowledgment of the handicap. During a clinical evaluation, some disability signs are physically present and visible (Kim, 2022). Although a diagnosis may be made before the disability or its implications manifest, many other illnesses do not become apparent until later in life. This has been made possible using biochemical testing and, more recently, with the identification of the molecular cause of hereditary impairment using revolutionary DNA innovation.[footnoteRef:19] [19: Your paper is weak in sections such as this because you refer to studies but give no information about them You do not introduce the studies nor indicate what the studies involved and provide no citations. ]

The specific mother and the family both contribute significantly to the early identification of impairment. The attentive mother may spot developmental anomalies, both physically and non-physical, as well as learning disabilities much sooner than a definitive diagnosis may be established. Timely identification and treatment can lessen the effect an impairment could have on the families and prevent the onset of various impairments. Premarital counseling and genetics screening can help avoid the conception of a baby with a genetic related illness if the respective parents have received a confirmation. Prenatal screening can be utilized if conception has already occurred; if the fetus is determined to be defective, necessary action can be done, and the parents can get ready to care for a kid with a disability. If the child is found to have a disease that could result in a handicap, early diagnosis measures can be implemented to lessen the effects of the potentially severe disability. To improve the ability of impaired kids and their families to adapt, medicinal or surgical techniques to preventive intervention give anything that is required to treat or rectify impairments and build the family unit. [footnoteRef:20] [20: This entire paragraph needs citations to support the statements made. ]

Omissions can negatively affect a kid's impairment condition and long-term progress, but early detection and remediation of abnormalities in young kids can have positive outcomes. Early detection, for instance, can encourage the creation of exciting situations where parents, physicians, and educators are better equipped to foster the growth, inclusion, and active engagement of kids with disabilities. Additionally, it can facilitate quick, sufficient accessibility to skilled care as necessary.

It is anticipated that the proposed program will lead to the realization of many benefits including: First, getting an early diagnosis of autism helps families find the solutions to their concerns regarding the unusual growth of their children. This enables them to start studying about developmental disabilities, comprehending how it affects their child, and starting the effort of changing how they view the future (Kårhus et al, 2022). It enables families to substitute concern and dreaming with factual knowledge regarding the basis of their child’s difficulties. Obtaining a diagnosis frequently frees families from the tension that comes with the treatment procedure by enabling them to shift from aimless concerns to motivated attempts to learn about the disease, locate support for the kid, and proceed into some sort of implementation strategy.

The choice of relevant treatment modalities is the second potential advantage of early diagnosis. Compared to children with other developmental disorders, autism victims exhibit a distinctive learning characteristic structure of comparative capabilities and deficits. Therefore, it is not strange that kids with autism perform best when they receive special instruction and a program designed to fit their learning profile. Early intervention strategies for young children with other types of disorders do not include the components found in these methods for teaching young children with developmental disabilities (Shaw et al, 2022). More explicit guidance, more organization, and more assistance hours per week are specifically prioritized, and smaller student-to-teacher ratio than those normally found in early intervention programs in most regions for kids with various developmental issues (Mudalige et al, 2022). Numerous studies have shown that young children with disabilities who receive intense and customized intervention as soon as appropriate have excellent results. Some of these investigations show that children who receive intense and customized therapy at age 3 significantly improve in terms of their IQ, speech, and performance in elementary school. As a result, earlier learn and achieve the selection and administration of the best medication.

In conclusion, early childhood intervention can tremendously aid children in having excellent results through their lives by allowing for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities and disorders in youngsters. Given that proper testing is necessary to begin early therapies, there are several tools available and in use around the globe for identifying developmental issues and disorders that are aimed at different experts operating in institutions and in the society as well as for clinicians and guardians to confirm that kids have the crucial support they require to advance and prosper.

References[footnoteRef:21] [21: Please review APA Guidelines. The title of article should not be in italics. The journal title and volume number should, instead be in italics. ]

Brunsting, N. C., Bettini, E., Rock, M. L., Royer, D. J., Common, E. A., Lane, K. L., … & Zeng, F. (2022). Burnout of special educators serving students with emotional-behavioral disorders: A longitudinal study. Remedial and Special Education, 43(3), 160-171.

Cacioppo, M., Lempereur, M., Marin, A., Rauscent, H., Crétual, A., Brochard, S., & Bonan, I. (2022). Motor patterns of the impaired upper limb in children with unilateral cerebral palsy performing bimanual tasks. Clinical Biomechanics, 97, 105710.

Gapurova, D. (2022). Children with complex developmental disabilities (children with sensory and mental disabilities). The American Journal of Social Science and Education Innovations,  4(11), 06-11.

Kårhus, L. L., Kriegbaum, M., Grand, M. K., Lind, B. S., Møllehave, L. T., Rumessen, J. J., … & Linneberg, A. (2022). Biochemical abnormalities among patients referred for celiac disease antibody blood testing in a primary health care setting. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-10.

Kim, S. (2022). Worldwide national intervention of developmental screening programs in infant and early childhood. Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics, 65(1), 10.

Lee, C. E., & Taylor, J. L. (2022). A review of the benefits and barriers to postsecondary education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The Journal of Special Education,  55(4), 234-245.

Mudalige, N. L., Ranasinghe, C., & Stojanovic, J. (2022). The clinical and radiological cerebrovascular abnormalities associated. x

Shaw, K. A., McArthur, D., Hughes, M. M., Bakian, A. V., Lee, L. C., Pettygrove, S., & Maenner, M. J. (2022). Progress and disparities in early identification of autism spectrum disorder: autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 2002-2016. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 61(7), 905-914.

United Nations Children’s Fund (2022). Early detection tools for children with developmental delays and disabilities. UNICEF. Accessed from:

Varadaraj, V., Friedman, D. S., & Swenor, B. K. (2022). Low Vision, Vision Disability, and Blindness. In Albert and Jakobiec's Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. 4945-4957. Cham: Springer International Publishing.