1. Which of these examples most clearly demonstrates a child’s understanding of the alphabetic principle?

a. When shown letters of the alphabet, the child can name all 26 letters.

b. When asked, “What words rhyme with ‘cat’?” the child gives several examples.

  c. When asked, “What is this word: /d/–/ŏg/?” the child responds, “dog.”

  d. When shown the letter “b,” the child says, “That letter sounds like /b/.”

When do children first begin to develop phonological sensitivity?

  a. before birth

  b. from 0–3 months of age

  c. from 3–6 months of age

  d. 6 months of age or later

What has neurological research revealed about the typical causes of reading difficulties?

  a. They are usually rooted in visual processing difficulties.

  b. They are usually rooted in phonological processing difficulties.

  c. They are usually rooted in a combination of visual and phonological processing difficulties.

  d. None of the statements above accurately describes current research.

Which of these tasks depend on phonological representation? Select all that apply.

  a. A child distinguishes between the words “serious” and “cereal.”

  b. A parent asks what a child wants to eat, and he replies, “Cereal.”

  c. A teacher says “ce – re – al,” and the child repeats and claps the syllables without blending the word.

  d. In the cereal aisle of a grocery store, a child asks her parent to buy corn flakes.

Which of these tasks depends on phonological awareness at the phoneme level?

  a. repeating the word “milk” and clapping the syllable

  b. identifying /m/ as the first sound in the word “milk”

  c. hearing that “milk” is part of the word “milkshake”

  d. recalling and saying the word “milk” when asked what goes with cereal