Higher. education.

Learning Goal: I’m working on a article writing multi-part question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

please respond to Elizabeth. 400. words. a p a. style.

There are three phases of the continuum of assessment essentials: assessment planning, implementation, and sustaining and improving the process (Banta & Palomba, 2014). Each phase is vital in ensuring that assessment methods in higher education are effective and contribute to student learning and the institution’s improvement.

Assessment Planning Phase

The assessment planning phase involves setting clear objectives, selecting appropriate assessment methods, and establishing a timeline for assessment activities (Banta & Palomba, 2014). This phase is important because it lays the groundwork for effective assessment by ensuring that assessment goals align with institutional objectives, stakeholders are involved in the planning process, and resources are allocated appropriately. This phase also helps establish the framework for collecting and analyzing data to measure student learning outcomes accurately. The assessment planning phase is highly adequate for addressing different aspects of higher education assessment across all levels.

At the course level, the assessment planning phase must align with specific learning outcomes and objectives. The assessment methods must be designed or selected to measure student achievement of course-specific skills, competencies, and knowledge. This phase needs to incorporate strategies for program-level assessment, such as capstone projects or portfolio assessments, to evaluate students’ cumulative learning experiences.

At the institution level, the assessment planning phase plays a crucial role in aligning assessment practices with the institution’s mission, goals, and strategic priorities. This involves institutional assessment activities with broader institutional effectiveness initiatives, such as strategic planning and accreditation processes. The assessment planning phase can ensure that assessment practices at the institutional level are integrated into the overall institutional framework and contribute to institutional improvement and accountability.


The essentials of assessment planning are highly adequate for addressing different aspects of higher education assessment. They provide a comprehensive framework for aligning assessment activities with institutional goals, involving stakeholders, allocating resources effectively, and upholding ethical standards. Assessment planning should build a culture of assessment that is evident in every part of the university (Boylan-Fick & Sadowski, 2006).

Proverbs 16:3 stresses the importance of planning as it says Commit to the LORD whatever you do, and he will establish your plans (New International Version, 2011). In the context of assessment planning, this verse highlights the significance of aligning assessment activities with the overarching goals and mission of the higher education institution.

Implementation Phase

During the implementation phase, assessment leadership is established with advocates present at the classroom, department, and college levels, while coordination occurs at the institutional level (Banta & Palomba, 2014). After developing a data collection strategy, it is important to allocate resources toward creating or acquiring suitable measurement tools. As many faculty and staff lack the necessary skills to develop or utilize reliable and valid measures, orientation and training are required in order for them to effectively participate in outcomes assessment. After gathering assessment data, it should be systematically organized, analyzed, summarized, and communicated effectively to encourage actionable steps (Banta & Palomba, 2014).

This phase includes essentials such as the selection of assessment methods, formative and summative assessment, data collection and analysis, and continuous improvement. These essentials are critical for addressing different aspects of higher education assessment, but their adequacy may vary depending on the context and implementation fidelity. This phase should include assessment practices that promote sustainability within higher education by utilizing various assessment practices (Makovskaya, 2022).

During the implementation phase, the data collection and analysis can present a challenge at the program and institution level. Most evaluation processes of courses that are completed by students are developed by professors for specific course purposes. Programs and institutions will need to aggregate this data in order to utilize these evaluations at the program or institutional level, and this tends to add complexity to the data analysis (Rickards & Stitt-Bergh, 2016).

Assessment methods must be carefully selected to align with learning outcomes and provide valid and reliable evidence of student achievement. Data collection and analysis are essential for generating meaningful assessment results that inform decision-making. Formative assessment provides ongoing feedback to support student learning, while summative assessment evaluates student achievement at the end of a course or program. Continuous improvement ensures that assessment activities contribute to enhancing student learning and program effectiveness. Utilizing assessment of student academic learning is critical to the future sustainability of higher education institutions (Lpez, 2002).


The essentials of implementation are critical for ensuring that assessment activities generate meaningful data and contribute to improving student learning and program effectiveness. However, the extent to which these essentials are adequate may vary depending on the implementation fidelity and the alignment of assessment methods with learning outcomes.

Proverbs 4:25-27 states, “Let your eyes look straight ahead; fix your gaze directly before you. Give careful thought to the paths for your feet and be steadfast in all your ways. Do not turn to the right or the left; keep your foot from evil.” When you consider this verse and how it relates to assessment, it encourages diligence and steadfastness in the implementation of assessment activities, ensuring that educators remain focused on the goals and objectives of the assessment process.

Improve and Sustain Phase

Processes are sustained and improved during the third phase of outcomes assessment (Banta & Palomba, 2014), this phase can be considered an evaluation phase. If assessment evidence lacks credibility for stakeholders, it may be necessary to consider improvements in data collection methods. Leaders responsible for assessment should oversee the examination, dissemination, and responsive action based on assessment findings. Allocating resources for implementing improvements is crucial. Regular reassessment of the assessment plan and procedures is necessary, with adjustments made as needed (Banta & Palomba, 2014).


The essentials of evaluation are crucial for establishing a culture of assessment focused on continuous improvement and accountability. However, the extent to which these essentials are adequate depends on the institution’s commitment to using assessment results effectively and transparently.

Ecclesiastes 3:1 states, “There is a time for everything and a season for every activity under the heavens.” This verse serves as a reminder of the importance of reflection and timing in the improve and sustain phase of assessment. It encourages institutions of higher education to take the necessary time to review assessment results thoughtfully, reflect on their implications, and make informed decisions for improvement.


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DeLuca, C., Chapman-Chin, A., & Klinger, D. A. (2019). Toward a teacher professional learning continuum in assessment for learning. Educational Assessment, 24(4), 267285.

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Su, Y. (2015). Ensuring the continuum of Learning: The role of assessment for Lifelong Learning. International Review of Education, 61(1), 720.