Gorton & Alston (2012) state, "Change is the one persistent phenomenon in education"(p. 188). Simply stated in education, as in many areas of life, change is the onlyconstant. As a leader it is imperative that you know how to effectively initiate,implement, communicate and evaluate change efforts. It is also important that youknow how to identify and manage resistance to change.

Required Reading Material for Module 4:Gorton, R. & Alston, J. (2012). School Leadership and Administration: ImportantConcepts, Case Studies, and Simulations, 9th ed. McGraw Hill: New York, NY.Chapter 7: Change


1. After reading and watching the mini-lecture on Change Management,(, write 2-4 well developedparagraphs reflecting on your thoughts/ reactions to the topic. Somequestions to consider in your reflection include:

1. How do you feel about leading change efforts?2. Who, if anyone, would you need to involve to support change

efforts?3. What challenges do you anticipate in regard to managing change?4. What do you feel are the most effective ways to evaluate initiatives

involving change in your institution, program or department?

2. Cite evidence from the course readings and/ or other scholarly evidence tosupport your arguments.



Today's educational institutions, programs and departments are becoming increasinglydiverse. When we think about diversity, most people immediately think of racialdiversity. While this is one form of diversity, it is also important to consider other formsincluding: academic diversity, socio-economic diversity, diversity of thought and so on.Educational institutions, like communities, are becoming less and less homogenous.That said, leaders today must be prepared to face issues of equity and diversity directly,strategically and effectively, in a manner that supports the needs and well-being of allthat they serve, most importantly students.


1. Write 2-4 well developed paragraphs addressing how educational leaderSmight act strategically to address issues of equity and diversity in theirinstitutions, departments and programs.

2. Cite evidence from the course readings and/ or other scholarly evidence tosupport your arguments.


"School leaders need to understand the change process in order to lead and managechange and improvement efforts effectively. Furthermore, they must learn to overcomebarriers and cope with the chaos that naturally exists during the complex process ofchange" (Gorton & Alston, 2012, p. 188).

You have learned about effectively managing change. This assignment gives you theopportunity to apply and demonstrate mastery of what you have learned. The casestudy that you will examine for this assignment, illustrates a scenario which manyeducational leaders will encounter throughout their careers, as education becomesincreasingly more diverse.


Gorton, R. & Alston, J. (2012). School Leadership and Administration: ImportantConcepts, Case Studies, and Simulations, 9th ed. McGraw Hill: New York, NY.


1. Read the case study Changing Demographics and Teacher Attitudes foundon page 258 on Gorton & Alston (2012). See next page.

2. Write a 3-5 page paper addressing the following:

1. If you were the principal, what would you do in this situation?2. What are the alternatives?3. Do you anticipate any resistance?

3. Support your answer with evidence from the course reading or other scholarlysources. Be sure to cite and reference your sources in APA format.


Dr. Riccardo Mendozza was in his first year in Capital City and his first position as a principal.

The former principal had left to complete work on his doctorate, but during the last two years of

his administration, the school’s student body demographics had changed and the student body

was currently composed of about 25 percent white and 75 percent non-white. At one time the

faculty had been predominantly white, but several “minority” teachers had been hired. Several

white teachers had transferred or moved to other districts because they felt that the changes

were lowering the standards in the school, a culture that has pervaded the school.

Dr. Mendozza has been very busy during the first few weeks of the school year. He had been

learning the schedule; becoming acquainted with students, teachers, and other people in the

district; familiarizing himself with the program of studies; and dealing with the day-to-day routine

and minor crises that are a part of the job of the building principal.

Although he was reasonably well satisfied with his new situation, two aspects troubled him. In

spite of the fact that the school, including the faculty, had been integrated, there was very little

social interaction between white and non-white teachers. As a rule, they did not mingle in the

faculty room, and they sat together at faculty meetings or during the noon hour. Although Dr.

Mendozza had not detected any actual antagonism or hostility, it was apparent that the two

groups of teachers were not associating with each other.

He had talked to his assistant principal about the matter, but his assistant didn’t believe that any

significant problem existed and took the position that even if it did, there wasn’t much that could

be done about it; people couldn’t be forced to associate with each other. Dr. Mendozza wasn’t

ready to accept his assistant principal’s assessment of the situation, but at the moment he didn’t

have any ideas on how to improve relations between the white and non-white teachers.

Besides, there was another problem that was possibly even more fundamental to quality

education in an integrated school.

Dr. Mendozza had noticed, in the process of becoming familiar with the program of studies in

the school, that the curriculum seemed to give inadequate attention and emphasis to non-white

history and culture. Although the former principal had apparently tried to stimulate some interest

in offering a course focusing on the culture and history of minority groups in the United States,

no one on the faculty had been willing to develop an outline of study. As a result, the present

social studies program was still very traditional.

The same type of situation existed in the language arts curriculum, which devoted little attention

to non-white literature. Although the principal was in favor of students learning about recognized

white U.S. and European writers, he believed that there should be a better balance in the

curriculum and that there was a great deal of worthwhile non-white literature to which all

students should be exposed. Certainly the minority students needed this type of relevant

education to develop a better self-identity and a deeper understanding of their culture and

history. Perhaps even more important, the white students needed a multiracial education if they

were ever going to learn to appreciate the non-white culture and develop a more positive

attitude toward relating and interacting with non-white people.

Dr. Mendozza realized that there would be problems in trying to achieve a truly integrated

faculty and multicultural curriculum. There would no doubt be resistance from teachers of both

backgrounds who did not want to associate with each other and who questioned the need for a

multicultural curriculum or doubted the school district’s commitment to this approach. There was

also likely to be the feeling on the part of many white parents that minority group studies were

either not necessary or not desirable. Dr. Mendozza was deeply committed to the ideal of an

integrated society, however, and believed that it was the school’s responsibility to play a major

role in contributing to that end. It was true that he was new and a little uncertain about how to

proceed, but he had been taught that the principalship was a leadership position, and he

intended to face up to the challenges in his school.