HIV and Gender


National University

COH 611

November 26, 2022

Introduction To Your Research Proposal

The number of individuals living with HIV/AIDS increased from 10 million in 1990 to 36.1 million by the end of 2000, with approximately 5.3 million new infections among adults and children. About 95 percent of the world's infected population resides in developing nations, with 70.1percentage points in Sub-Saharan Africa, 17.8 percent in South, Southeast, East Asia and the Pacific, and 3.9 percent in Latin America (Shahabudin, 2001). Estimates put the daily rate of new infections at 15,000, with the vast majority occurring in underdeveloped nations. Of these, 11.3 percent are found in children less than 15 and 86.6 percent in adults of working age (15-49 years). While males continue to account for most infections, new statistics indicate that women now account for 47 percent of all infected adults. According to Shahabudin (2001). Around 21.8 million people have lost their lives to AIDS since the epidemic began; it is currently the fourth most significant cause of mortality worldwide. AIDS caused the deaths of 3 million individuals in 2000 (Türmen, 2003).

Gender and sex are distinct categories. Unlike "sex," which refers to an inherent difference between the sexes, "gender" is "a social construct that divides the authority, duties, roles, and duties of women from those of males (Mocroft et al.,2000). Humans are either female or male at birth, but they develop into women and men via education and socialization. Gender roles are established and maintained based on these learned behaviors. We understand that women are more susceptible to HIV than men due to cultural and genetic factors. Furthermore, it is evident that women in many civilizations have a lesser economic and social standing merely due to their gender.

A gender-based perspective on HIV/AIDS examines how these physiological and gender factors interact to raise a woman's risk of infection. For instance, women with Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are more susceptible to disease. In addition, few women are in a position of political or economic strength to demand condoms during sexual encounters. We as well know that women are disproportionately impacted by social prejudice and discrimination and that family violence is often exacerbated by war and insecurity. At the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, males were adversely impacted. The situation has evolved significantly. The global HIV/AIDS epidemic now affects 42 million individuals, 19.2 million women. In 2002, there were 5 million new cases of HIV infection worldwide, with women accounting for 48 percent of these cases. A more worrying trend is the earlier age at which women get sick compared to males. 67 percent of new infections occur in people aged 15 to 24 in underdeveloped nations.


This study explores the various social, cultural, and biological factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of HIV infection among women and young girls. Gender is a significant factor in HIV/AIDS. This analysis highlights the need to include gender in HIV programming and identify strategies to empower women by ensuring they have equal access to resources like education and knowledge. The only way to stop the epidemic's spread is to provide resources in developing countries.


Bekker, L. G., Johnson, L., Cowan, F., Overs, C., Besada, D., Hillier, S., & Cates Jr, W. (2015). Combination HIV prevention for female sex workers: what is the evidence?. The Lancet, 385(9962), 72-87.

Mocroft, A., Gill, M. J., Davidson, W., & Phillips, A. N. (2000). Are there gender differences in starting protease inhibitors, HAART, and disease progression despite equal access to care?. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 24(5), 475-482.

Shahabudin, S. (2001). Gender and HIV/AIDS—the human rights and security perspectives. Commission on the Status of Women, 45th Session.

Türmen, T. (2003). Gender and HIV/aids. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 82(3), 411-418.