Bissie Tadesse: Module 06 Worksheet- Development Assignment

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .

Erikson’s Theory Trust vs.Mistrust

In this stage, theinfant learns toeither trust ormistrust theirprimarycaregivers toprovide love,food, comfort,and other needs.If the infant crieswhen hungry andthe motherresponds withmilk, the infantexperiences trustbecause his/herneeds are met. Ifan infant doesnot feel able totrust theircaregivers, theoutcome is fearand convictionthat the world isunsafe andunreliable.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Autonomy vs.Shame orDoubt

In this stage, thechild should beworking ongaining a senseof control andautonomy. Thiscan includethings likebecoming toilettrained, peelingtheir ownoranges, orchoosing apreferred taskrather thanhaving it chosenfor them.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Initiative vs.Guilt

This stage ismarked bydevelopment thatallows children topossess their ownpower and controlover the worldthroughinitiating/participating in directplay and socialinteractions.Children who aresuccessful herewill feel they arecapable peopleand developinitiative.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Industry vs.Inferiority

In this stage,children will nowdevelop pride intheiraccomplishmentsand capabilitiesthrough socialinteractions. Thismeans thereshould be ahealthy balancebetweenchallenging achild to developand ensuringthey receiveadequateencouragementfrom thosearound them(parents,teacher, friends).(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Identity vs.Role Confusion

In the fifth stage,children will bedeveloping asense of personalidentity. Thisincludes theirinterests, values,hobbies, likes,dislikes, desires,and beliefs.Success in thisstage throughself explorationresults in peoplewho have astrong sense ofself,independence,and personalcontrol.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Industry vs.Inferiority

She is developingnormally for herage and Erikson’sstage. Sheattends 2ndgrade at school.Relevant to thisstage, sheexpressed thatshe attendsschool, interactswith new peers,is makingfriends, and shefeels confidentabout her skillsin math andreading. Sheexpresses thatshe is better thanher friends atgymnastics andfeels proud whenshe getsrewarded by herteacher for goodwork.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .


This stageincludes neonatalreflexes, primarycircular reactions(hand-mouth andear-eyecoordination),secondarycircular reactions(enjoying thislike peek-a-booand mirroring),and coordinationof secondaryreactions(planningactivities toattain specificgoals with toyslike coloredboxes)(Silbert-Flagg,2017, p. 771).

Tertiary circularreaction,invention of newmeans throughmentalcombinations,andpreoperationalthinking.Respectively, thismeans that thisage-group willengaging ingames like“throw andretrieve,” blocksor colored plasticrings, and for thelast stagementioned, theirthoughts willbecome moresymbolicmeaning theyunderstand verysimpleabstractions likethe concept oftime. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

Social awarenessskills aredeveloped in thisstage, as childrenbegin to considerand understandthings fromothers’perspectives. Atthis age,indications ofproperdevelopment maybe a childengaging inmagical thinkingor givinghumanizingqualities toinanimateobjects. Furtherunderstanding ofconcepts of timeallows children toview the eventsof their days insequential order,too. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

At this age,normal cognitivedevelopmentincludes skillslike abstractthinking, whichcan includebeing able to telltime using aclock ordevelopingproblem solvingskills.Additionally,children willdevelop theability toengage/carryconversations.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

At this age,children’s abilityto think“historically,futuristically…andhypothetically”develops, andthey experiencean increase intheir attentionspans. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

She is currentlyable tounderstand howto read a clock totell time, sheunderstands thatif she spillssomething shecan use a papertowel to clean it(indicatingproblem solvingskills), and she isvery talkativeand holdsconversationswith adults andpeers.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .


By Month

2 to 3 months:Infants at thisage havedistinguishablecries based onthe presentneeds, so theircry for hungerwill be differentfrom that ofwanting to beheld/comforted.

5 months:Infants at thisage will “coo”and “goo”

9 months:Infants maybegin to say theirfirst word(although thiscan differ withoutany indication ofpathology), butthe word will belikelyone-syllable(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

At this age,children begin toidentify differentpeople and evenaddress them byname/title. Inthis stage, avocabulary ofabout 20 to 50words is typical.While shortresponses with2-3 words areexpected, therewill be nocompletesentences.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Learning/ability inthis stageincludes learningnumbers, thealphabet, andsome grammarthat allows formore completesentences thanpreviously. Thisgrasp of languageallows children toengage inconversations.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

At this age,children speak incompletesentences, beginreading, can telltime, and theyuse parts ofgrammar likeplurals correctly.Theirvocabularies alsogrowsignificantly.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

As mentioned inthe previousstage, vocabularycontinuesgrowing withcontinuedlearning.Conversationsare more easilyheld, even withadults becausecognitive skillsare expanding toallow for morenuanced/flexibleconversationalskills. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

She speaks incompletesentences, readsabove her gradelevel, and hervocabulary hasgrownsignificantly sincepre school.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .


Infants developtrust for theircaregivers inalignment withErikson’s trustvs. mistruststage. Thisapplies to needslike comfort,love, safety, andnutrition.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

At this age,children developindependentskills like makinga personaldecision on whatsnack they want,peeling theirorange on theirown, anddeveloping skillsto make moreappropriatechoices as theyprogress to thisstage. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

In this stage,children developthe ability to“initiate” atask/activity. Forexample,initiating crafttime whichrequires them tounderstand thesteps involved toengage in thisactivity. Allowinga child a fewactivities tochoose from andgentlyencouragingindependentdecisions willallow them tobuild this skill.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

In this stage,social interactionis developed, aschildrenparticipate inactivities withothers, makefriends, andbegin to assessand be proud oftheir ownabilities. Thispride in personalability is relatedto thedevelopingability tocomparethemselves withtheir peers.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

In this stage ofpsychosocialdevelopment,children begin toexplore theiridentity,aspirations,purpose/values,and this can beconfusing, but asuccessfuloutcome is astrong sense ofself and personalpurpose.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

The child enjoysplaying pretendwith friends (likeplayingsuperheros vs.villains), shemakes newfriends easily,and she is able toappreciate heraccomplishments. Moreover, shecompares herdrawings andreading skillswith her friends'.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .


Infants cannotmoralize becausethey do notcomprehend theconcept of rightor wrong(Prakash, 2020).

Because childrenat this age haveyet to developcomplete abilityto empathize,they havedifficulty withperceivingthrough others’perceptions ofright and wrongand typically acton their personalfeelings. Thus, itis important toredirect bad or“immoral”behavior whileconsistentlyrewarding goodor “moral”behaviors.(Prakash, 2020).

At this age,children continueto act based ontheir ownfeelings, so theirsense of moralityis still developing(Prakash, 2020).They will oftenmirror behaviorsapparent in theirenvironment, somodeling moralbehavior aidstheirdevelopment.

At this age,moralunderstandinganddevelopment isforming/evident(Prakash, 2020).Children actmorally based onunderstanding ofconsequencesfor immoralbehavior, butthey stillstruggle tounderstand theprinciple for whyimmoralbehaviors areconsideredimmoral. Theyunderstand thatthey will bereprimanded forpoor behavior,but they do notunderstand howpoor behaviornegativelyimpacts theperson on thereceiving end.

At this stage ofdevelopment,children formtheir ownunderstanding ofmorals based onpersonal valuesand beliefs. Theyunderstand rightand wrong and,further, basemorality onpersonal values.(Prakash, 2020).

Some behaviorsshe engages inthat areconsidered“immoral”include hittingher older sisterduringdisagreements.When her dadasked her whyshe did thatbehavior, sheapologized. Whenasked what shewas apologizingfor, she did notindependentlyapologize for howit mader hersister feel, butshe wasdistressed by theconsequence ofpotentiallyhaving her iPadtaken away.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .

Discipline Because infantscannotunderstand aconsequence asit relates to theirbehavior,discipline shouldnot look like“punishment.” Atthis age, a gentletone of voice andexpression ofempathy is mostappropriate(Lampert, 2021).

Simplydisciplining achild this agewithoutexplaining thereason behindthe discipline willnot effectivelyimprovebehaviorsbecause theyhave troubleunderstandingright or wrong.Teachingemotionalregulation skills,explaining how“bad” behaviorsaffect others,removingdisruptivestimuli, andredirectingmaladaptivebehavior is mostuseful (Lampert,2021).

Removing a childfrom a disruptiveor rewardingenvironment inthe form of atime out may beuseful but iscurrentlycontroversial.More useful isredirecting/extincting poorbehaviors andrewarding desiredbehaviors. Usingyelling mayactually increaseoccurrence ofmaladaptivebehaviors bygranting the childattention inresponse to a badbehavior whichcan inadvertently“reward” thingslikeattention-seekingbehaviors(Lampert, 2021).

Communicatingand clearlyestablishinglimitsbeforehand isimportant.Rather thanremoving arewardingactivity on theonset ofunwantedbehaviors (ex.“come homebecause yourroom is notclean”), settingthe expectationbefore that theroom must becleaned prior toleaving to hangout with friendsis more effectivefor reinforcingdesiredbehaviors with adirectly relatedreinforcer. Thepurpose is toteach personaldiscipline andself regulation(Lampert, 2021).

In this stage,mutualcommunicationand agreed-uponboundaries areimportant indiscipline.Accommodatingthe child’sdesires isimportant withinreason.Additionally,fittingconsequencesare preferred. Ifa child does notdo theirhomework butwants to go seefriends, makingthem do theirhomework first ismore appropriatethan taking awaytheir phonebecause that issomethingunrelated(Lampert, 2021).

It appears that herparents disciplineher primarily byrevoking iPadprivileges.Although I couldnot adequatelydetermine if sheunderstood theconnectionbetween heractions and thepunishment, shedid express thatshe “wouldn’t do itagain” if she couldplease get anotherchance. Sheresponds very wellto praise and willcontinue abehavior ifrewarded for it(which is why shelikes cleaning hertoys to earn“outside time”).Her mostdisruptivebehaviors stemfrom feelingfrustrated that noone is listening, soshe resorts toyelling andescalatingbehaviors until shereceives attention.


Posteriorfontanelle closesat 2-3 months

Anteriorfontanelle closesat 12-18 months

1.5 pound weightgain expectedmonthly until 6months

Height shouldincrease by 1inch each monthand be increasedby 50% frombirth height at 1year old.

Headcircumference 2cm greater thanchest’s andshould increasesteadily, withclose monitoring

Abdomen isround andprotruded untilthey beginwalking(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Weight gainshould be about4 to 6 poundsper year

Height shouldincrease byabout 3 inchesannually

Head and chestcircumferenceshould be aboutequal by ages 1or 2. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

No significantchanges inappetite shouldbe present fromprevious stage

Weight gain isabout 4 to 7pounds annually

Height isincreased byabout 2 to 4inches annually

All deciduousteeth have grownin at this age(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

The averageannual weightgain is 4 to 7pounds.

The heightincrease is about2 inchesannually.

Puberty occursbetween ages 8and 14. Thismeans a “growthspurt” anddevelopment ofbreasts infemales andpubic hair inboth sexes.Males enterpuberty laterthan females.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Growth normallycontinues untilbetween ages15-20(Silbert-Flagg,2017). Femaleswho have notreachedmenarche will doso. This isaccompanied bybreast growth,pubic hair, a“drop” in a malesvoice, facial hair,and growth oftesticular size.Growth hasceased once theepiphyseal platesof the long bonesare fused. Withhormonalchangesassociated withpuberty,hormonal acnemay result.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Her weight gain,height, and headcircumferenceare all withinnormal limits andincreasing nomrally for her agegroup.


No small objectsbecause theypose a risk forvariousobstructions.Nothing shouldbe kept in thecrib (such asblankets, stuffedanimals, orpillows).Checking bathwater and bottlesfor temperatureprevents burnsand even heatloss. Infantsshould not be leftalone duringbaths due to riskof drowning. Carseat safety isessentialaccording to thestandard andmanufacturer'sguidelines.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Supervised playis recommended.No small objectsin reach isimportant.Hazardousmaterials andobjects such asweapons,cleaningproducts,medications, andmatches shouldbe kept lockedaway and out ofreach. Continuedcarseat use isrecommendedaccording torelevantregulations (likerear-facing).When cooking,do not leave pothandlesaccessible byturning thehandle towardsthe back of thestove. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

The previousrecommendationsshould remain.However, childrenare not requiredto remain inrear-facing carseats and shouldinstead utilizebooster seats.Because childrenare playingoutside with lessdirectsupervision, theyshould be taughtto cross streetssafely and taughtto not speak tostrangers.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Seat belt andbooster seat useis essential formotor vehiclesafety. Teachingsafety in sportsand bicycling isimportant, andthis includesteaching aboutsafetyequipment.Teaching theproper names ofgenitals, types ofappropriate andinappropriatetouch, consent,fire safety,evacuation plans(where to go incase of atornado), andsafety arounddrugs and othersubstances isimportant.Additionally,teaching childrenhow to swim isone example of afun way ofteaching injuryprevention.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

The previousstage’sconsiderationscontinue to applyhere.Additionally, safedriving educationis essential. Thisage groupexperiences arisk for mentalillnesses such asdepression, soteaching mentalhealth activitiesand monitoringfor signs andsymptoms ofdepression isimportant,according to thepediatric ATIebook.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

This child uses abooster seat,expressesknowing theimportance ofseat belts, knowsto use a helmetwhenrollerskating, sheknows to lookboth ways beforecrossing theroad, and hermother informedme that sheknows the properanatomicalnames for hergenitals and howto reportinappropriatetouch.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .


National healthgoals recommendsolelybreastfeeding orformula feedingfor at least 6months.Beginning at 6months,introduction ofsolid food doneslowly isappropriate. Asfoods areintroduced, closemonitoring forallergic reactionsis essential tosafety.Introducingsavory foodsbefore sweets isrecommended(vegetablesbefore fruits, forexample).(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Cow milk (28 to48 oz daily) isrecommended.Juice, especiallywith addedsugars, should belimited. Tastepreferencesdevelop, soparents shouldoffer finger foodsto determinelikes andencouragefeeding.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Calorierecommendationsfor this age is1200 to 1400calories daily(Silbert-Flagg,2017). The foodplate can help toensure allfood-groups areincorporated intothe diet. Parents’eating habitsgreatly impacttheir children’s,so modeling andactivelyparticipating ingood eatinghabits isimportant.Fortified foodscan help withadequate intakeof vitamins andminerals,especially formore pickyeaters.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Encouraging andmodeling healtheating habitsthrough offeringhealthy/easy andvaried choiceswill encourageadequatenutrition. Snacksshould be high inprotein, calcium,vitamins andminerals, andhighly nutritious.Fruits andvegetables andfortified cerealscan promoteadequate intake.Limiting fastfoods andencouraging thechild to makeintuitive choices(identifyinghunger/fullnesscues) can reducerisk for pooreating habits.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Due to changeslike rapid growth,increasedmetabolism, andchanges likemenarche,nutritional needsincrease andchange too.Adolescents mayfeel more hungryand requireincreasedcalories to adjustfor thesechanges.Females needincreased iron inparticular. Proteinis importantespecially withincrease inphysicalactivities.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

This child is pickyeater and prefersdry, crunchyfoods. Because ofthis, her parentsensure that freshvegetables andfruits areavailable. Theyalso providefortified cerealsand oatmealwhich sheenjoys. Theyreinforce tryingnew foods byrewarding her fortrying somethingnew. She doesnot like milk butloves cheese,and she does notlike the textureof meat, so herparents offervegetarianEthiopian foodshigh in proteinand calcium.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .

Dental Care Using a clean,wet washcloth torub gums evenbefore teethgrow in isencouraged,especially withteething. By theend of age 1, 6to 8 deciduousteeth grow in.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Regular dentistvisits shouldbegin by age 1.Twice daily dentalcare and flossingshould be taughtto children undersupervision.Parents shouldbe advised thatfoods/drinks withadded sugar leadto increased riskof tooth decay.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Continued annualdental cleaningsand as neededdental careshould continue.Supervisedbrushing/flossingis important toensure childrenare doing thecare effectively.Parents should beadvised thatfoods/drinks withadded sugar leadto increased riskof tooth decay.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Regular dentalvisits/cleaningsarerecommended.Twice dailybrushing andflossing isrecommended.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Cosmetic andfunctional bracesmay be indicatedand other dentalwork may befrequent. Twicedaily brushingand flossingcontinueslifelong. Fluoridetoothpaste andwater isrecommended.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

This child knowsthat she mustbrush her teethtwice daily, butshe does notfloos. She lovesthe dentist andgoes regularlybecause theyhave a fish tank.She does enjoysweet drinks, soher parents usefluoridetoothpaste andencourage water.She has her adultteeth growing in.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .

Sleep Sleep patternvaries greatly,but factors like aquiet and dimenvironmenthelp. Feedingsinterrupt sleep.By 3 to 4months, infantstake one or twonaps per day inaddition tosleeping throughthe night. Safesleep is essentialto avoid suddeninfant death.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

At this stage,children sleepabout 11 to 12hours a night.Napping once perday is normal butvaries. A routineshould beimplemented andcontinuedmoving forwardto promote sleephygiene.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

At this stage, 12hours of sleep issuggested.Napping may benormal during theday, but is notrequired. Aconsistent dailyand sleep routineis recommendedfor the sake ofregulation ofwake-sleepcycles. (PediatricsATI, n.d.).

With theintroduction ofmore activeschedules thatinclude school,extracurriculars,and socialactivities, sleepregulation isessential fordevelopment.Consistentbed-times arenecessary forsleep hygieneand “recovery.”(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Eight hours ofsleep a night,sometimes more,is recommended.As activities andpersonalresponsibilitiesincrease, alongwith growthduring puberty,adequate sleep isessential foroverall growthand wellness.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

She struggleswith adhering toa sleep scheduleand herpediatricianrecommendedmelatonin forsleep promotionas a result. Shedoes not napregularly, butduringgymnastics andthe school year,she occasionallynaps during theday. She saysshe does not feeltired during theday unless she“runs around toomuch.”

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .

Activity and Playtypes

Teething rings,rattlers/noisemakers, colorfulpictures or bookswith audio, andeven mirrors areappropriate playtoys/activities.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.).

Blocks, push andpull toys,puzzles, coloringtools, and stuffedanimals areappropriate. Playshould besupervised.Children at thisage may engagein independent orcoplay.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

Preschoolers mayenjoy toys likepuzzles, balls,crafts likedrawing, andeven bikes orelectronics.Children this agealso engage inimaginary playlike acting like aprincess orfirefighter.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

Children this agetypically engagein physicalexercisecenteredactivities likerunning outside,jump-roping,biking, sports,and they enjoyactivities likeboard games.Moreover, theydiscover andengage indesired hobbiesand interests.Encouragingphysical exerciseand explorationof activities isimportant.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

Currently,interests inthings likemovies/shows,video games, andsocial mediagreatly increasescreen time atthis age.Encouragingactivitiescentered aroundphysical activityis important. Thiscan includecompetitivesports.Additionally,social activitieslikegatherings/parties with friends arenormal, as arethings likeexploring newbooks and music.(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

She enjoysplaying tag withfriends, biking,doing coloringbooks, reading,and gymnastics,but she does notlike trying newthings that are“too hard.” She isin the youngerrange of theschool age stageand still believesin the tooth fairy,but not in santa.She engages inimaginative playwith toys andplays well withher peers.

Infancy Toddler Pre School School Age Adolescent ObservationData forFemale, age 7years old. .

Vital SignsIncluding typeof Painassessment

NIPS pain scale

BP: Systolic70-104, diastolic40-50

Pulse: 110-160bpm

Temperature:97.7 to 100.4 F

Respiration rate:30 to 60 per/min

(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

BP: Systolic86-106, diastolic42-63

Pulse: 98-140bpm

Temperature:98.6 F

Respiration rate:22 to 37 per/min

(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

FACES pain scale

BP: Systolic89-112, diastolic46-72

Pulse: 80-120bpm

Temperature:98.6 F

Respiration rate:20 to 28 per/min

(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

FACES pain scale

BP: Systolic97-120, diastolic57-80

Pulse: 75-118bpm

Temperature:98.6 F

Respiration rate:18 to 25 per/min(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

Numerical painscale

BP: Systolic110-131,diastolic 64-83

Pulse: 60-100bpm

Temperature:98.6 F

Respiration rate:12 to 20 per/min(Pediatrics ATI,n.d.)

BP (could notperform) isgenerally around108/66.

Pulse: 100 bpm

Temperatureaxillary 97.6 F(expected withaxillary routewith homethermometer)

Respiration rate:19 per/min


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Silbert-Flagg, J., & Pillitteri, A. (2017). Maternal and Child Health Nursing (8th Edition). Wolters Kluwer Health.