The Age of Empire Characters and Key Terms.html

Unit 3: the age of Empire: 1890-1914

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"The Age of Empire": Characters and Key Terms


Keep this list of major characters in mind in order to follow the action more easily.  Click on each person or Key Term to see his/her/its corresponding description and/or definition. You can also click the "Show All" button to expand all characters and descriptions at once.   (1861-1932) was a historian best known for writing “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” in which he argued the frontier shaped American history and character by providing a crucible forging rugged individualism and democracy. With the closing of the frontier in the 1890s, some Americans some imperialism as a new arena for maintaining a rugged American character. (1801-1872) was Secretary of State from 1861-1869. His expansionist vision sought increased American involvement in foreign commerce. He is best known for purchasing Alaska from Russia in 1867. (1840-1912) spent almost forty years (1873-1912) in China as a Southern Baptist missionary. She worked to give female missionaries more autonomy abroad. She helped found the Woman's Missionary Union in 1888, which collected offerings to fund missionaries in China. The annual offering, named for her in 1919, is today called the Lottie Moon Christmas Offering for International Missions.(1840-1914) was a U.S. naval officer and strategist. His book The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1660-1783) helped convince American leaders, especially Theodore Roosevelt, that the U.S. needed a strong navy in order to compete with European powers in the realm of global imperialism.Aguinaldo fought against Spanish rule in the Philippines beginning in 1896. When the U.S. entered the Spanish American War, Aguinaldo worked with U.S. forces to defeat the Spanish. However, when the U.S. failed to recognize Philippine independence, Aguinaldo fought the U.S. through guerilla warfare. Ultimately, he was defeated. The Philippines became independent in 1946.

Key Terms

A phrase coined by Rudyard Kipling in the late 1890s, referring to a belief that white westerners have a responsibility to uplift their cultural and intellectual inferiors in non-western regions such as the Philippines and India. This belief rested on racist assumptions of white supremacy. American businesses were heavily involved in Hawaiian sugar production and trade by the mid-nineteenth century. When dynastic and political changes threatened the stability of Hawaii, the U.S. annexed the islands, despite strong local opposition. Spanish-American War (1898) was a conflict between Spain and the U.S. over territory in the Caribbean and Pacific; it was part of a longer Cuban war for independence. The U.S. got involved in 1898 for both humanitarian and selfish reasons, wanting to help the Cuban people be free from despotic Spanish control and to protect American economic interests. Ironically, the most decisive episode of the war took place in the Philippines at the Battle of Manila Bay. A phrase that emerged in the mid-1890s to describe newspaper reporting that focused on sensationalism over facts. It specifically referred to a battle for readership between two New York rival publishers, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was partly responsible for the U.S. entering the Spanish American War, after sensationalized coverage of the USS Maine explosion in Havana Harbor fanned support for war.The USS Maine exploded and sank in Havana Harbor February 5, 1898. Proponents of yellow journalism called for war. The Teller Amendment (1898) stipulated that Cuba would not become an American territory after the Spanish American War. Following the terms of this treaty ending the Spanish American war, the U.S. paid Spain $20 million for Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.Anti-Imperialist League formed in June 1898 to oppose U.S. annexation of the Philippines at the end of the Spanish American War. Members argued against annexation for differing reasons. Some believed annexation ran counter to the idea that legitimate government rested on the consent of the governed. Others had more racist motivations, believing that Filipinos would never be able to rise to the standards of American citizenship. Foraker Act (1900) created a civilian government in Puerto Rico to replace the military occupation that had been present since the end of the Spanish American War. The act was highly unpopular among Puerto Ricans.U.S. demanded that Cuba add this amendment to their constitution, as a condition of independence after the Spanish American War. It stipulated, among other things, that the U.S. would be given permanent naval stations in Cuba and, more importantly, if there was internal disorder in Cuba, America could intervene militarily. Secretary of State John Hay penned a series of notes 1899-1900 claiming for the U.S. open access to all Chinese markets, countering the notion of separate spheres of influence claimed by European powers. The Japanese, British, and French endorsed the open door notes, while Russia – and to a lesser extent Germany – resisted them.An anti-foreign movement in China that killed or tried to force out foreign businesses, missionaries, and diplomats. The violence threatened the open door policy articulated by John Hay. An international force put down the rebellion, and negotiations reestablished peaceful relations with the west.Theodore Roosevelt famously stated he believed one should “speak softly and carry a big stick.” When translated to foreign policy, this meant the U.S. could avoid armed conflict, especially in Latin America, by maintaining a strong navy and proclaiming a willingness to use it. Roosevelt showcased America’s naval might in 1907-1909, when the Great White Fleet journeyed around the globe.Seen as Theodore Roosevelt’s greatest foreign policy achievement. Building the canal across the Panamanian isthmus allowed interoceanic trade to proceed much more rapidly and provided a strategic naval advantage. France attempted to build a canal but failed. The U.S. started its efforts in 1904; the canal opened in 1914.Roosevelt Corollary (1904) to the Monroe Doctrine stated that if a Latin American country mismanaged its financial affairs in a way that made it beholden to a European country, the U.S. would step in to pay off debts (and thus make the country beholden to the U.S.).Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) was fought over control of areas in Manchuria and Korea, especially ports. Theodore Roosevelt helped negotiate an end to the war with the Treaty of Portsmouth. Japan emerged as the pre-eminent power in Asia, while Russia ended its imperialist aspirations there. The treaty marks a moment when the U.S. emerged as a significant diplomatic force.term given to U.S. foreign policy under President William Taft and his Secretary of State Philander Knox. They believed that the goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests. The region most affected by dollar diplomacy was Latin America and the Caribbean.