Infant Research Activity

Learning Goal: I’m working on a kinesiology multi-part question and need the explanation and answer to help me learn.

Read the paper Unintentional Error in Fromula Preparation (Attached) and answer the following questions

1. If the amount of calories are equal between breast milk and formula, what are the proposed reasons for why formula fed infants out-gain exclusively breast fed infants?

a. Prior to reading this paper, what were your initial assumptions for why this difference exists?

b. What were the potential reasons listed in the paper for why this difference occurs?

2. Research papers like this one are designed to address gaps in scientific knowledge. In 1-2 sentences, what was the purpose of conducting the study in this paper?

3. Describe how the study methodology assessed the adult’s ability to prepare infant formula (i.e. follow directions). What were the participants instructed to do?

4. So.. what was the major finding? Out of the 636 bottles of infant formula dispensed by the participants, were the bottles more likely to be under-dispensed, accurately dispensed, or over-dispensed?

What percentage over- or under- the planned serving size did the participants dispense on average? Is this a lot?

5. There were no significant differences in how much formula was dispensed by the adults between the first and second visits. That made other differences that much more interesting. Describe the following findings:

a. Was there was a difference in how often caregivers and non-caregivers over-dispensed infant formula?

b. Did male and females dispense formula equally?

c. Did the BMI and/or age of the individual dispensing the infant formula matter?

d. Did formula the frequency of over-dispensing formula vary across ethnicities?

6. The study then looked to examine the long term effect of formula feeding by extrapolating out the results across 6 months. Describe how a hypothetical male and female gained weight differently at 6 months of age compared to a reference infant with a normal birth weight in the 50th percentile.

7. The authors described the major limitation of the study to be the fact that infants did not actually consume the formula. Why is this a limitation?

8. What are your personal takeaways from a study like this? How has this exercise changed the way you view this topic or the process of conducting research?